Conclusion

Conclusion

Congratulations, you have now successfully completed the Basic Principles of Toxicology short course. 

You have been introduced to a qualitative understanding of the science of toxicology and some of the challenges when assessing, managing and communicating the associated risks.


Key points:

  • Toxicology is the scientific study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on living organisms and ecosystems. Poisons can be termed toxins, toxicants or venoms, depending on the origin. Xenobiotics are any substances foreign to an organism or to an ecological system.
  • Dose is critical in toxicology. Factors that influence the response to a dose include age, sex, body size, route of exposure, frequency of exposure, elimination, pre-systemic toxication, physiological state, sensitivity and tolerance.
  • Risk is proportional to both hazard and exposure. Graham’s Hierarchy of Disagreement is a useful tool when considering the range of arguments and feedback on toxic risks from concerned stakeholders.
  • Distinguishing between cause and effect and association is both critical and challenging when assessing toxic risks. Bradfield Hill provides nine principles for cause and effect to be established.


If you would like to learn more about toxicology, please enrol in the next short courses in the suite:

  1. Toxicology and dose response – coming soon
  2. Toxicology testing and risk assessment – coming soon
  3. Toxicokinetics: What your body does to the chemical – coming soon
  4. Toxicodynamics: What the chemical does to your body – coming soon
  5. Capstone: Chemical classes and regulatory toxicology – coming soon

Do not forget to click Mark Complete below on all lessons in order to receive your certificate.